Tests of the Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis

as the Mechanism of Universe Formation from Gravitationally Bound Structures

Universe Formation Home Page

1 November 2012


The singularity acceleration hypothesis has seven major concepts that may be evaluated or tested somewhat independently of each other. If these basic concepts can be proven, then the numerous other proposed secondary hypotheses will be confirmed, subsequently be confirmed from unanticipated information, or be shown to be the most plausible explanation of universe formation.

1.    The expansion of the universe will form distinct sections with galaxy clusters and supercluster gravitationally bound to each other but separated from the rest of the universe, which will disappear over the event horizon of each section.

2.    Galaxy clusters and sometimes supercluster will consolidate primarily into supermassive black holes.

3.    Single dominant supermassive black hole singularities will consolidate all of the mass in the black holes that are gravitationally bound over hundreds of billions of years or more.

4.    Dark energy will push and assist the bending of space to the speed of light by the dominant supermassive black hole singularities which act as a catalyst for dark energy to supply most of the energy for the big bang.

5.    The separation of a singularity from the universe will cause a phase transition suspending the laws of gravitation attraction, inflation mass-multiplying effect, and CP violation.

6.    The existence of other universes will support the singularity acceleration hypothesis.

7.    The possibility of a micro black hole forming outside of a universe will support the singularity acceleration hypothesis.


Computer simulation provides the most practical verification of this hypothesis

Models of the following hypothesized phenomena would provide the best means to determine the value of the singularity acceleration concept in explaining the formation of the universe.


1. The evidence for the universe expansion and separation and the concurrent consolidation of galaxies within clusters has been demonstrated by Nagamine, Kentaro, Loeb, and Abraham when they calculated the eventual merger of Andromeda and the Milky Way Galaxies along with some smaller galaxies. They also predict that, as a result of the universe expansion, this consolidated galaxy will be separated from the rest of the universe and disappear over the event horizon. [11] This concept appears applicable to the entire universe; however, more information would substantiate the principle. Data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) and other projects will likely confirm this theory. [55]


2. The singularity acceleration model predicts that over hundreds of billions of years, supermassive black holes will gain mass relative to the mass in their galaxies. The accretion and merger process is necessary for the supermassive black holes to become dominant and their singularities to escape from the universe. This is a very slow process; however, there should be some difference over five or six billion years. A test that may be feasible in the future would compare the mass ratios of supermassive black holes to their galaxies in two significant samples: one sample of nearby galaxy clusters and another sample of selected galaxy clusters about six billion light years away, which in effect are providing information from six billion years ago. Careful controls for comparable clusters and dark matter should be selected to ensure appropriately comparable galaxies are being studied. The total mass of the supermassive black holes in a galaxy cluster compared to all the mass in their cluster can be averaged with several hundred clusters. The difference in the ratio of supermassive black hole mass to the total galaxy mass between the distant galaxies and the nearby clusters would be small, maybe only one hundredth of one percent. With present technology, any difference found may be within the bounds of experimental error; however, in principle this experiment would be able to predict the likelihood and the length of time needed for the formation of dominant supermassive black holes.


To determine when and where new universes will form requires calculations on the probability of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and a supercluster complex being sufficiently linked by gravity to be a region in which the majority of the matter and energy will be consolidated into a dominant supermassive black hole. A study, similar to the one by Kentaro Nagamine and Abraham Loeb [11] for the visible universe would produce a map showing the long-term consolidation of galaxies. With the continual advances in astrophysics and related disciplines, such a map may be possible for parts of the universe closest to us. Subsequent calculations on the rate of consolidation within the region will provide estimates of when singularities will begin to separate. The final calculation will determine the rate of acceleration of the singularity. This could be affected by the drain rate or efficiency at which dark energy flows to the black hole singularity in order to accelerate it. Data from the BOSS and similar projects in the future will likely confirm this theory. [55]


3. The most practical method to understand singularity acceleration would be to construct a computer program to model the aging of the universe to determine if and when black hole singularities could reach space warp escape velocity and separate from the universe. Given enough information, a computer model could predict when and which specific galaxies and galaxy clusters will produce dominant supermassive black holes.


4. Unfortunately, to observe singularities causing big bangs requires a very long wait. The test of this hypothesis can be verified in the range of many tens of billions of years from now, as the most massive black holes will be in the process of escaping or will have escaped from the universe by then. However many of the galaxy clusters will be over the event horizon from each other which will prevent direct observation of these events. The plausibility of dominant supermassive black hole singularities being pushed by dark energy to accelerate of the space warp will be demonstrated by computer simulations.


As a more complete map of the universe is developed, it will be possible to calculate when a black hole singularity will accelerate and escape from the universe. This requires determining when its mass exceeds that of the gravitational force exerted on it by its galaxy and the universe. Calculating these forces will provide a reasonable estimate of the length of time until it separates from the universe and becomes a big bang.


The singularity acceleration hypothesis will predict when universes will make new universes. One method for predicting future big bangs is based upon supermassive black hole star consumption rates, the merging of black holes within galaxy clusters, and the expansion of the universe. One of the largest known black holes, OJ287, at 18 million suns, will consume a smaller orbiting black hole with 100,000 suns in about 10,000 years. [56] A computer simulation of this black hole singularity’s size relative to its galaxy may be a good example to use to project the time when it will separate from the universe, since it could be one of the first.


We are in the early history of our universe, and all supermassive black holes are probably in gravitational equilibrium with their galaxies. Thus, it is unlikely for singularity acceleration to have caused a new universe. The Penrose mechanism [38] provides one possibility for how universe formation occurred, since energy can be taken from a rotating black hole. A gravity assist is the way that a supermassive black hole that entered at exactly the right angle and speed of the Kerr space-time or ergosphere outside the event horizon of an even larger supermassive black hole could be stripped from its galaxy by the near miss with the larger supermassive black hole and would be accelerated at a higher rate of speed. “In summary, the Penrose process result in a decrease in the angular momentum of the larger black hole and that reduction corresponds to transference of energy whereby the momentum lost is converted to energy extracted.” [38] While this scenario is unlikely to have occurred in at such an early phase of our universe, this mechanism could cause the first new universe to form from our universe. Once the black hole has no constraining gravity from a galaxy or galaxy cluster, it might be able to overcome gravity of the universe and accelerate its space warp. The other singularity acceleration component requires that dark energy assist the singularity space warp. The combination of events that would provide sufficient dark energy to accelerate the singularity to reach the speed of light is unlikely to have happened and may not even be possible at such an early time in the history of the universe. A search for gravity waves from a departed free supermassive black hole singularity would be one way to verify the hypothesis. The last material entering a black hole that had not reached the singularity will cause perturbance in the parent universe once the singularity causes a big bang. This material would stay in the parent universe and should be detectable.


5. If inflation after the big bang occurs, the phase transition is proven to exist, at least for the duration of the inflation. It is plausible that in addition to suspending the speed of light limitation, gravitation is suspended, allowing the singularity to explode in a big bang and massive CP violations [10] to occur. The scenario in which a singularity enters into a phase transition when it separates from its universe, ending its laws, could be run as a computer simulation to at least confirm its plausibility. A computer simulation of the potential effectiveness of a CP violation or equivalent in producing a net increase in mass in the new universe over the mass of the singularity would also support the plausibility of the phase transition.


6. Gravitation is the most likely candidate for detecting and measuring other universes, and this method is far from certain to work. An example of gravitational influences from nearby universes could be the anomaly-affecting galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56. It and many other galaxy clusters appear as though they are being pulled toward an unknown and unseen object. [57] The most plausible explanation is that a large concentrated mass of dark matter is gravitationally attracting them. The first test would be to search for dark matter through the use of a gravitational lens. Dark matter would be invisible, but its gravitational force would act as a large mass and would not appear to be coming from a single point.


If dark matter is ruled out, then the anomaly-influencing galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56 could be the gravitational attraction of another universe. If gravitation from one universe can be detected in another, then it will be detected by distortions in galaxy movement. One plausible explanation is that a dominant supermassive black hole from another universe is in the process of separating from its universe and is encroaching upon our universe. This would be detected by gravitational influence upon parts of our universe that appear to be coming from a single point. The consequence of a dominant supermassive black hole singularity encroachment on another universe would be gravitational disruption; however, if it separated and formed a new universe within another universe, the gravitational influence from its big bang could become repulsive. This concept is only speculative.


Traditional astronomical methods of observing the cosmos will not detect other universes based on the singularity hypothesis, which predicts that each new universe forms its own space and time, and electromagnetic energy (light) will not leave the universe and thus is not detectable by observers in other universes. This limitation would also likely restrict the ability to detect remnants of the big bangs of earlier universes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.


7. To test the plausibility that micro black holes could have initiated the first universe, one would construct a computer simulation to model that possibility. The simulation would determine if micro black holes could use a gravity assist to accelerate another micro black hole sufficiently to extend their lifetime and allow subsequent gravity assists to accelerate them sufficiently to cause a micro big bang.


Copyright © 2012 - John M. Wilson