Manuscript

Acceleration of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities

Serving as the Catalyst of Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes

 

Universe Formation from Gravitationally Bound Structures

 

Universe Formation Home Page

 

John M. Wilson

9504 Lakewater Court

Henrico, Virginia 23229, USA

jmwgeo@gmail.com, 804-741-4274

Copyright © 2012 - John M. Wilson

Article Outline

1. Introduction

2. Discussion – Proposed Axioms and principles of universe formation

            2.1 Natural refinement sequence usually referred to as trial and error

2.2 No superfluous components exist in the universe not needed for universe formation

2.3 Gravity and black hole singularities have distinctive long term mass storage

2.4 Infinity of potential time and space

2.5 Simultaneous universe expanding and combining components

2.6 Warping space at the speed of light

            2.7 Big bang phase transition occurs when a singularity separates from a universe

            2.8 Cosmological Evolution

            2.9 Micro universes

3. Discussion – Explanation and consequences of some of the universe formation laws based on the singularity acceleration hypothesis.

3.1 A plausible sequence summary of universe formation

3.2 Each universe component has a function and a role in causing a new universe 

3.3 Simultaneous universe expansion and consolidation is essential to universe formation

3.4 How a black hole singularity becomes massive enough to form a universe

3.5 Dark energy accelerates the space warp of supermassive black hole singularities

3.6 Contrast of the bursting singularity verses Smolin bouncing black hole theory

3.7 Something from nothing - the Krauss universe formation theory

3.8 Rules and processes of cosmological evolution

3.9 Ineffective universe formation factors

3.10 Information loss associated with universe formation

3.11 The last stages in the life of a universe

3.12 Functional unification of the four forces

4. Test of Hypothesis

5. Conclusions

6. Acknowledgements

7. References

 

1. Introduction - Philosophy of Cosmology

How did something come from nothing? From where did the energy come to cause the Big Bang? What will happen to the black holes and the universe? How did inflation occur? Are there other universes? Are the laws of physics the same in all universes? What does the existence of dark matter and dark energy imply? Do all major components serve a critical function? For example, are the ratios of the amount of baryonic mater, energy, dark energy, and dark matter to each other significant and do they provide plausible functions for each in universe formation? The Big Bang appears to be a likely catalyst for the creation of more matter than existed prior to its occurrence in the apparent singularity that formed it. The singularity acceleration model, using mostly established constructs, provides a plausible and functional sequence of events causing a big bang.

 

For the purposes of this hypothesis, it is assumed that general relatively, quantum mechanics, and a flat universe provide the best theories of the nature of the universe, and current scientific observations that confirm the existence of the Big Bang,[1] inflation,[2,3] dark energy,[4] and dark matter,[1,5] are accurate. In recent years astronomical observations have mostly confirmed several dissident theories of dark energy as a factor in the expansion of the universe and dark matter in the structuring of galaxies.[1] The traditional concepts of the Big Bang formation did not account for approximately 95 percent of the mass universe. This dissidence with the proposed Axiom 2 of universe formation provided the impetus to discover a theory of universe formation which considered the significance of dark energy, dark matter, and black hole singularities. Axiom 2, which is explained later, states that all significant forms of matter and energy are critical to the formation of universes.

 

In using cosmological process analysis one observes events and results, suggests the most likely functions for all major components of the universe, and then constructs a comprehensive model of universe formation and evolution. This is done without necessarily knowing the nature of all the components. For example, black holes, dark matter and energy, and other components can be measured to partially understand what they are; however, cosmological process analysis studies what they do in order to evaluate these components by their interactions and plausible functions to produce a model that can explain the formation of the universe.

 

The confirmation that the expansion of the universe is accelerating has resulted in the rejection of a cyclic model of universe formation in which the entire universe collapses to form a big bang and another universe. [6] However, other cyclic models such as the Conformal Cyclic Cosmology theory proposed by Roger Penrose are not invalidated by universe acceleration. [7, 8] Black hole singularities are the next logical candidate for the source of a big bang. Discoveries of extremely massive black holes and galaxies with two orbiting massive black holes show how the black hole singularity consolidation process could produce very large singularities. [9] The problem still exists that the largest known black hole singularity would have to be about 13 orders of magnitude larger to equal the size of our universe. [9] The singularity acceleration model posits seven phases that provide the mechanism to account for the mass of such a large universe from a large supermassive black hole. They are:

1. A phase transition big bang that forms a new universe

2. Expansion of the new universe and its structure

3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy

4. Isolation of its galaxy clusters and supercluster complexes beyond event horizons

5. Many separate consolidations of all forms of matter, forces, and energy within these supercluster complexes into dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularities

6. The resulting acceleration of singularities warping space to the speed of light

7. The independent separation of each of these singularities from the universe causing a big bang phase transition and producing all forms of matter, forces, and energy in a new universe. The phase transition is posited to have temporarily ended certain laws such as gravity, allowing a big bang, enabling a CP violation or equivalent function and creating mass. A CP violation is a violation of the combination of postulated conjugation symmetry and parity symmetry of baryons. [10] In a flat universe, matter and energy creation is offset with an equal amount the creation of negative energy in the form of gravity. The net result is that the total amount of energy remains zero.

 

These four principle assumptions about nature support the singularity acceleration model of universe formation:

1.    All complex processes and things, both natural and intentionally designed, are the result of an object or a model refinement sequence usually referred to as trial and error;

2.    All significant forms of matter and energy are critical to the formation of universes;

3.    If it is possible for a universe to form, it will; and

4.    If it is possible for universes to evolve systems that make more universes, they will; and if it is possible for universes to evolve systems that become more reliable in producing more or larger universes, they will, given sufficient time.

 

The singularity acceleration hypothesis presents a model governed by nine of sets of axioms, laws, principles, or concepts, each with several parts. The most detailed subsets are proposed for the inflation epoch and cosmological evolution. It also proposes a few changes to current models of the universe from 108 to 1015 years after the Big Bang and what happened prior to the Big Bang. The most significant concepts of the hypothesis are:

Ø  As the universe expands, galaxy clusters eventually pass the event horizon from each other, which reduce their mutual gravitational attraction to zero. [11]

Ø  Most of the galaxy cluster mass consolidates into a dominant supermassive black hole.

Ø  Dark energy’s repulsive force pushes dominant supermassive black hole singularities, increasing its space warp and contributing its mass to its singularity.

Ø  Under certain conditions dominant supermassive black hole singularities accelerate warping space at the speed of light.

Ø  Big bangs can occur only outside of a universe when a singularity has no gravitational attraction with other mass and some laws are suspended in a phase transition.

Ø  When a singularity breaks its gravitational bonds and separates from a universe, it enters a phase transition in which the laws of the universe end for a brief time, the singularity becomes naked, gravitation is suspended causing a big bang, and the gravitational force of the singularity is converted into a new universe.

Ø  The laws in a new universe may or may not be the same as in the parent universe.

Ø  Inflation identifies when the phase transition occurs. This is shown by the inflation era that allows mass to exceed the speed of light.

Ø  The phase transition includes a mass multiplying effect caused by a CP violation or equivalent function. The equation Mu= S2.C2 describes the exponential increase in the amount of mass created by the largest singularities, when Mu = the mass of the new universe, S= the mass of the singularity, and C= constant or the speed of light.

Ø  The process of making a large universe such as ours requires many intermediate universes, which result in the simultaneous existence of many universes.

Ø  Universe formation has evolved into unending cycles of a big bang, expansion, dispersion, isolations, consolidations, acceleration, separations, and big bangs.

Ø  The information needed to make a universe is all the information that must be retained through a phase transition to the new universe.

 

2. Discussion – Axioms, Laws, and Principles of Universe Formation

These nine sets of axioms, laws, principles, or concepts are relevant to universe formation as described by the singularity acceleration hypothesis. If these statements are true, then the acceleration singularity hypothesis is true. The more generally accepted laws or principles are stated with only limited discussion.

 

Specifically, if the first six sets of axioms and principles are true, then it is true that a supermassive black hole singularity can cause a big bang sufficient to form at least a small universe. If the first seven sets of axioms and principles are true, then the singularity acceleration hypothesis is true and a dominant supermassive black hole singularity can cause a big bang sufficient to form a universe significantly more massive than the creating singularity.

 

If both the singularity acceleration hypothesis and Axiom set eight are true, then the evolution of universes hypothesis is true. If the singularity acceleration and the evolution of universes hypotheses and Axiom set nine is true, then it is plausible that the spontaneous concentration of quantum events hypothesis is true as a general description of the first micro universe that led to the formation of many generations of universes prior to ours. Additional subsets of these laws and principles are implied by the singularity acceleration hypothesis and are listed in each group.

 

Basic Axioms and principles governing universe formation

 

2.1 Axiom 1. All complex processes, both natural and intentionally designed, are the result of a refinement sequence that is often referred to as trial and error.

 

A. Great things are not spontaneous.

All great events have causes that can at least in principle be identified, measured, and explained. This Axiom effectively states that the Big Bang could not have been a spontaneous event and that it was preceded by numerous events.

 

B. Ultra small events, such as the formation of certain subatomic particles, may be spontaneous.

An example of a plausible spontaneous event may be the formation of one-dimensional strings. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that articles go in and out of existence. [12] Before any universe or other matter existed, it is plausible that the uncertainty principle applied, and in an unlikely event, many articles came into existence at the same time to form an article sufficient to start the first micro universe.

 

C. The likelihood of a large spontaneous event is inversely and exponentially proportional to the complexity of the spontaneous event.

The probability that an event will occur spontaneously can be determined by the number of independent components in the event or mass that are critical for the event to occur. Thus, for ten independent particles to spontaneously act as a unit, all interrelated functions must also happen spontaneously and simultaneously. The probability is not one in ten; it is one in 100. The chances of very large events occurring spontaneously are so small that, while they are technically not zero, the reality is that it is impossible, for example, for even a grain of sand to occur spontaneously without a long sequence of causes.

 

D. All complex processes and things are the result of an object or a model refinement sequence usually referred to as trial and error. [13]

Nothing complex is ever created in one step. All design has a certain degree of trial and error. With enough time, the universe formation process will discover the means to replicate. This Axiom does not negate the possibility that an external source exists with intentional design capability of controlling the universe formation process. However, intentional design does substantially increase the complexity of the initial universe formation process. The two main difficulties of describing an intentional design process are how such a capability forms and, once formed, the means by which it exerts control over the process. The major advantage that intentional design has over natural selection is that it can be more efficient in the use of time in that obvious unnecessary steps can be avoided. However, in the evolution of universes there is no penalty for having a slow or inefficient process, since time and space are, in principle, free and unlimited. A discussion of the formation of an intentional design force is more complex by at least an order of magnitude when it involves forces that cannot be measured, so further discussion is not included here.

 

2.2 Axiom 2. All significant forms of matter and energy and all significant processes and events are critical to the formation of universes.

 

A. Nothing in nature forms and survives very long, relative to its peers, with significant superfluous components. The most significant forces and other phenomena have critical functions in the formation of this universe and have the same critical functions in the formation of all past and future universes.

 

B. Everything in the universe is the cause or result of a critical function. Matter, energy, dark matter, and dark energy all have critical functions in the universe formation and existence. For example, galaxy clusters are held together by gravity from dark matter and matter.

 

C. The occurrence of inflation, when the very early universe appears to have expanded at a rate exceeding the speed of light, provides strong evidence that a phase transition occurred during the Big Bang phase of the universe formation when some physical laws did not apply. [14, 15] For example, during this phase transition, the universe-forming singularity became naked, and the gravitational bond of the singularity was disrupted and ended, causing it to explode as a big bang.

 

2.3 Axiom 3. Gravity and black holes singularities are unique in their ability to concentrate and store large amounts of energy for very long periods of time.

 

A. Gravity is the only force that could store the energy required for big bangs, and it is the only force of the four known forces that can sufficiently concentrate energy, since it works over infinite distances and does not disperse energy as does the electromagnetic force. [16, 17]

 

Gravitation is by far the weakest of the four interactions by many orders of magnitude; however, since it has infinite range and it always attracts, it can concentrate energy in very small amounts of space and, for all practical purposes, store it indefinitely. The other three forces can be eliminated as candidates to cause big bangs for various reasons. The strong force disperses energy when it is concentrated in a star and disperses it faster the more massive the star. The strong force and the weak force have limited range and have limits to their ability to concentrate and store large amounts of energy. Electrostatic attraction is not effective on the stellar or galaxy level, as it has both positive and negative charge, which means that it has a net attraction of zero.

 

B. Black hole singularities are the only known entities that could store in a small space the force necessary to cause a big bang.

Black hole singularities are the most effective means known to concentrate force that can cause a big bang. Since the universe will expand indefinitely, dispersing its galaxy clusters, it cannot form a universe from its entire body; the next largest sources of mass available for creating a new universe are black hole singularities, which have the most concentrated energy of any known object in the universe. Black hole singularities use gravitation to accumulate and concentrate energy as more mass is added. Gravity can store energy indefinitely in enormous quantities, and it overwhelms all other forces when concentrated. This possibility has been suggested before and rejected, as even the very largest black hole singularities are many orders of magnitude short of the mass necessary to cause a big bang. A plausible explanation of how a few singularities of dominant supermassive black holes acquire and apply sufficient mass is presented in a later section.

 

Thus, by applying the process of elimination to the first three sets of laws, we deduce that gravity acquires and stores the massive energy acting through black hole singularities to be the only known phenomenon that could cause a big bang.

 

2.4 Axiom 4. Potential space and time are infinite

 

A. The potential space in which universes may form is infinite. Alternatively, this concept is expressed as the fact that new space is created with the formation of new universes and can never be exhausted by the formation of additional new universes.

Potential space or places where matter and energy could exist is infinite. The singularity acceleration hypothesis requires that potential space is infinite and posits that new space is regularly being created from nothing by newly formed universes. A new universe will always be able to form, as it creates its own space.

 

B. The potential time in which the process of universe creation could have functioned is infinite.

Time exists when there is some event. Potential time is infinite, and when the first event occurred, measurable time started. The formation and destruction of universes will continue indefinitely.

Time for each universe starts with its formation. Within its space and time, there is no recoverable record of the time previous to its formation.

 

C. Potential space is nothing. [18] Prior to a new universe forming, there is nothing; this is not to be confused with a vacuum. Vacuums occur in space that has dimensions and gravity and through which light can travel. In potential space there is no gravity, matter, light, energy, fabric of space, or dimensions, so there is no place in potential space from which an observer can look out and see universes or anything else. However, this Axiom does not rule out the possibility that the uncertainty principle applies in potential space.

 

D. The uncertainty principle is true everywhere. The uncertainly principle allows subatomic virtual particles with net zero energy to briefly pop in and out of existence. Quantum mechanics substantiates the uncertainty principle as it applies within our universe. The uncertainty principle is also assumed to function in empty space that is not part of a universe. [18]

 

2.5 Axiom 5. A simultaneously expanding universe and consolidating galaxy clusters are essential to making more universes.

 

A. Dark energy is causing the universe to expand, and the universe will continue do so [19] until the last of its components degenerate in as much as 10100 years, unless some of its components can separate from the universe. Galaxy clusters that do not remain gravitationally bound will be separated from each other so extensively by dark energy that they will disappear over the event horizon from one another. This phenomenon eliminates the possibility of a cyclical or bouncing universe in which the entire universe will collapse and consolidate as a unit leading to another big bang causing a single universe. [7]

 

B. Dark energy expands the universe, separating galaxy clusters. This expansion is driven by dark energy, which is essential for the formation of new universes, by reducing the gravitational force between galaxy clusters. This also effectively reduces the universe’s gravitational attraction with dominant supermassive black holes. In the late stages of dominant supermassive black hole development, dark energy provides the force to accelerate the singularity and contributes to its mass, as governed by the law of conservation of linear momentum.

 

C. Dark matter, constituting about 22 percent of the universe, is critical to providing sufficient gravitational attraction to form galaxies and to help keep galaxy clusters together long enough to allow the formation of dominant supermassive black holes. [20, 21, 22, 23] This offsets the dispersion effect of dark energy which will drive apart everything not sufficiently connected gravitationally. Dark matter could be weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS), other dimensional, or something else. As long as it helps maintain gravitational attraction between galaxies in a cluster, its functioning is compatible with the singularity acceleration hypothesis. Both baryonic and dark matter appear to perform the same function of providing sufficient gravitational force  to hold galaxy clusters together, assisting dominant supermassive black holes attain enormous size. Why do they both occur? Would either baryonic or dark matter be sufficient in the universe formation process? There are at least five alternative but not necessarily mutually exclusive answers to why both are needed.

1.    Dark matter is important in disrupting the orbits of matter in galaxies, speeding the process of accretion of mass by black holes. [24]

2.    Dark matter is more efficient in the formation of galaxies, while baryonic matter is necessary to be the primary material of galaxies and black holes.

3.    Both forms may be efficient in capturing mass in different situations; however, both forms of matter are necessary for dominant supermassive black holes to capture sufficient mass.

4.    Both forms of matter are the result of a critical big bang universe formation process that must produce both for a universe to form.

5.    Baryonic matter is critical to the formation of black holes, and dark matter is critical to the structure or fabric of space. [23]

 

D. The process of an ongoing expansion of the universe, while galaxy clusters are simultaneously combining and isolating themselves from the remaining universe, is essential to making more universes. Much of the mass in galaxy clusters that successfully holds together against the dark energy-driven expansion will become part of dominant supermassive black holes at their center. Gravity attracts and usually holds the galaxy clusters together, and over time galaxies with their black holes pass close enough for the black holes to go into mutual orbit. [25] They also appear to be dancing, as their orbits are very elliptical and progress in a series of advancing elliptical orbits that disrupt stellar orbits, allowing many more stars to be swallowed by the black holes. [26] Black holes consume stars and gradually become more massive. Dark matter is essential to this process of building large black hole singularities, since it helps to hold galaxies and galaxy clusters together and may cause perturbation in stellar orbits. Dark matter also offsets the dispersion effect of dark energy, which will drive apart everything not sufficiently connected gravitationally. Galaxy collisions usually result in the black holes at their center colliding in extraordinary events that hasten the building process of dominant supermassive black holes. Given sufficient time, this combination of both gradual and extraordinarily rapid growth (heavy duty cycle) [25] will result in black holes that are much larger than the supermassive black holes known to exist now. As the stars are widely dispersed, many black hole mergers are required for the majority of the galaxy cluster to become part of the dominant black hole. A very rough estimate is 1013 to 1014 years after the Big Bang for the consolidation to be complete, and certainly by 1015 years, all dominant supermassive black holes will have merged and consumed most of the other material in the galaxy cluster. Any remaining small black holes, stars, dust, and gas will eventually degenerate. The longer estimate assumes that “dark matter contributes to no more than 10% of the total accreted mass” [27] of the black hole. Thus, the consolidation process of dark matter is slower than that of baryonic matter, requiring a longer time span than would be needed for dominant supermassive black holes to consume the baryonic mass.

 

E. The function of dark energy transitions to a complement of gravity in the latter stage of singularity acceleration. Dark energy and gravity are opposing forces, with gravity attracting mass and making stars, black holes, and galaxies, while dark energy is pushing them apart. However, once dark energy has separated almost everything that is not bound by gravity in the galaxy, a dominant supermassive black hole, dark energy, and gravity will be the only significant factors remaining in the universe. They will effectively complement each other to accelerate the space warp of dominant supermassive black hole singularities. Dark energy remains repulsive in that it still pushes things apart, and in this case it continues to do so by pushing the dominant supermassive black holes out of the universe. In the process, the singularity’s primary source of mass is dark energy. Gravity is essentially doing the same thing as it attracts mass to the singularity, increasing its warp of space. The supermassive black hole serves as a catalyst for dark energy, which without a singularity would not be able to attach its mass to anything capable of separating from the universe.

 

2.6 Axiom 6. Supermassive black hole singularities can bend space at the speed of light.

Black hole singularities accelerate as their mass increases relative to the combined mass of the galaxies that are gravitationally bound to them. The weaker the gravitational attraction between the singularity and the galaxy, the more effectively dark energy can be in pushing the singularity and warping space at an accelerated rate.

 

A. Mass warps space and extraordinarily massive black holes force extreme warps that, under certain conditions, reach the speed of light and lead to singularity acceleration and eventual separation from the universe.

As the black hole gains mass, two important things occur. First, it compresses all of its matter and energy into a singularity that moves by stretching or warping space. Mass bends or warps space, and the more massive an object, the more space bends. [28] Secondly, a black hole singularity’s mass breaks the equilibrium between it and the constraining gravitational forces of its galaxy, causing it to increasingly warp space and move farther away from its galaxy, reducing their mutual attraction.

This hypothesis maintains that massive objects warp space in measurable distances. For example, set the position in space of a star at a hypothetical point A, with relativity turned off. Then, turn on relativity and the star will be at point B, which is some distance from point A. The difference between these two points is real but can only be seen indirectly by an observer in three-dimensional space. If the mass of the star is increased, the length of this line increases and the object is now at point C. The distance between B and C is real and can also be measured. With black hole singularities, the distance can be quite significant, and as black holes absorb other black holes, stars, and other objects, the singularity moves farther along this line. Its distance is related to its mass and that of the galaxy and cluster.

 

B. Dark energy accelerates the space warp of dominant supermassive black hole singularities to the speed of light.

Over eons, as dark energy expands the universe, thereby decreasing the effective gravitational attraction between the universe and its galaxy clusters, and when singularities achieve sufficient mass relative to any surrounding galaxy, the rate at which they will accelerate in a space warp increases. Dominant supermassive black holes that have consumed most of their galaxy, galaxy cluster, and supercluster have exceptionally large black holes which allow more force to be applied by dark energy, increasing the singularity acceleration. The gravitational attraction between the singularity and its galaxy decreases as the galaxy loses mass to the black hole. The singularity’s acceleration is assisted by dark energy in the same way it is causing the universe to expand and accelerate.

 

The largest and first dominant supermassive black hole singularities to form in a galaxy cluster will receive almost all of dark energy available in the cluster. Dominant supermassive black holes formed later will be smaller, will receive relatively proportionally less dark energy, and may not receive enough energy to escape the universe.

 

Dark energy propels the singularity in a space warp, in effect, increasing its mass. According to the law of momentum conservation, the mass of the singularity depends on its speed. Thus, as dark energy is applied to the movement of the singularity, it effectively increases the mass of both the singularity and the new universe it will form. Based on Einstein’s equation, if an object at rest has a mass M, moving at a speed v it will have mass m = mo / [1-(v/c)2] ½. When v and c are nearly equal, mass becomes very large. The equation applies to universe formation; therefore, when the singularity separates from the universe as its gravitational attraction becomes zero, a phase transition occurs and all of the dark energy is converted to the mass of the singularity. This equation states that when v = c, the mass becomes infinite. Since we know that cannot happen, it is reasonable to assume that this law is suspended during the phase transition.

 

C. The structure or fabric of space-time, referred to as the stress-energy tensor, has a mass and energy equivalent and can functionally be treated mathematically as a force and be measured by gravity. [29, 30] “In general relativity, gravity can be regarded as not a force but a consequence of a curved spacetime geometry where the source of curvature is the stress-energy tensor [representing matter, for instance].” [31]

 

There are three concepts that are plausible for describing gravitation and modeling singularity movement: general relativity, M-theory, and dark matter dimension. Any of these theories are compatible with the singularity acceleration hypothesis; however, for purposes of simplicity the dimension in which black hole singularities move will be referred to as a space warp. Resolving which theory provides the best model requires information not available; however, working constructs are plausible with each of these theories of dimensional space. General relativity space-time provides an adequate model to explain the movement of black hole singularities. M-theory and string theory have the theoretical flexibility to accommodate singularity acceleration. Dark matter and dark energy may exist in different dimensions than do matter and energy but have gravity in common with them. The acceleration of black hole singularities can also be modeled in multi-dimensional systems.

 

2.7 Axiom 7. A big bang phase transition occurs when a singularity warps space at the speed of light and separates from its universe. Inflation provides the best evidence of a phase transition between universes in which the laws of physics are suspended. [2, 32] If the inflation period in the early formation of this universe is correct and mass exceeded the speed of light, then it is probable that the singularity that caused the Big Bang warped space at the speed of light, separating from a previous universe. This phase transition process effectively nullifies laws such as gravity releasing the energy in the singularity causing a big bang.

 

A. Gravity and other physical laws prevent big bangs from occurring within a universe. Gravity keeps a black hole singularity in its singularity form until the singularity slowly degenerates by Hawking radiation. The only alternative for a singularity is to separate from the universe, becoming naked and causing a big bang when the laws of the universe do not apply for a brief time.

 

B. Time slows for an object as it reaches the speed of light. [33] The singularity in the phase transition has sufficient time to produce everything needed to make a universe. While an outside observer would conclude that a big bang formed critical parts of the universe in a microsecond, an observer inside a big bang would conclude that the process lasted much longer.

 

C. The phase transition from accelerating singularity to a new universe has a mass-multiplying effect.

The theory of general relativity implies that mass moving at the speed of light becomes infinite. Since we know that cannot happen, the most likely explanation is that the phase transition ends the application of certain laws of physics when a singularity separates from its universe.

More mass is produced in a big bang than is contained in the singularity that caused it. This hypothesis assumes that at some time prior to a big bang less matter existed and that a big bang appears to be the most likely event in which mass is created and a mass-multiplying process occurs.

 

D. The phase transition occurring in a big bang causes a CP violation or equivalent. This results in a substantial increase in the matter and energy in the new universe over the amount in the singularity. The singularity acceleration hypothesis suggests that the larger the singularity, the more efficient the CP violation process or equivalent process is at making mass and annihilating antimatter, thereby increasing the mass of the larger universes. [34, 35] The mass creation equation Mu=> S2.C2 shows the exponential increase in the production of matter in the most massive singularities, where Mu = the mass of the new universe, S = the mass of the singularity, and C= constant or the speed of light.

 

A massive accelerating singularity is the most likely candidate to cause a big bang, and dark energy is the most likely candidate to cause the singularity to accelerate. Axiom 8 states that, “If it is possible for universes to evolve processes that form more universes, they will.” Further speculation suggests that the process is efficient and that antimatter is annihilated almost as fast as it is created without annihilating matter. If efficient CP violation is impossible, then an alternative exists to accomplish the same result that will result in an increase in matter from a big bang. The CPT transformation is formed by combining three transformations: charge conjugation (C), parity inversion (P), and time reversal (T). The CPT theory states that a particle and its antiparticle have the same mass and lifetime and the opposite charge when created by a big bang. [36] The singularity acceleration process causes the CP symmetry violation.  The specific function has not been determined; however, the singularity conversion is likely to produce results that are only possible under these conditions. Such a large increase in baryons is projected in the equation Mu= S2.C2, which will require a significant CP violation or equivalent function, such as a hypothetical particle called the majoron. [37]

 

E. A singularity may not actually be a single point, as the mathematical model predicting an infinitely small point may break down before reaching infinity, or zero, in this case.

 

F. Empty space may be negative energy allowing a big bang and an expanding universe to add mass without violating the law of conservation of matter. [14, 18] 

 

G. Summary of events that occur when a singularity separates from its universe:

1.    The gravitational attraction with its parent universe and galaxy end.

2.    It becomes a naked singularity losing the black hole cover. [38]

3.    It enters a phase transition in which the laws of the previous universe end, but the laws of the new universe are not immediately applied.

4.    During the phase transition, the singularity’s gravitation ends causing a big bang.

5.    The big bang subsequently expands at a rate exceeding the speed of light during an inflation era until the new universe structures its laws.

6.    Speed and time function independently of the laws of both old and new universes; thus, mass can exceed the speed of light without becoming infinite and without time completely stopping or running backwards, as would be expected in general relativity.

7.    A process, such as a CP violation or an equivalent function, occurs that can produce more mass than existed in the singularity, as projected in the equation Mu= S2.C2.

8.    It loses some specific information contained in the previous universe but retains enough information to make a new universe.

9.    A new set of physical laws are created that apply to the new universe. The laws are at least similar to those of the previous universe but not necessarily identical.

10. The transition from stored energy in a singularity into a new universe releases the largest amount of concentrated energy in the universe formation cycle.

11. The new universe will appear to an observer within it to have come from a single point, as if space and time began from nothing.

 

2.8 Axiom 8. Cosmological evolution - If it is possible for a universe to form, it will; and if it is possible for universes to evolve processes that form more universes, they will. [39]

 

A. There are many universes and many generations of universes. [40]

The process of making a large universe such as ours requires many intermediate universes, some of which produced black hole singularities that made larger universes or formed with new laws of physics that resulted in more efficient universe formation in succeeding generations.

 

B. If it is possible for universes to evolve systems that produce universes, with laws of physics most likely to produce more and larger universes more efficiently and more reliably, they will, given enough universe generations.

 

Over many generations universes will coalesce around certain laws and processes that are effective and efficient in making more universes. This Axiom requires there be at least occasional variation between succeeding generations. Any universe with less effective formation laws produces few or no universes. For example, if a universe had little dark energy, the black hole singularities would not reach the speed necessary to separate from their universe. Martin Rees makes a convincing case for six fundamental numbers describing certain ratios and laws necessary for a universe like ours to form. [41] This concept of universe evolution has been proposed before. One advocate is theoretical physicist Lee Smolin, who makes a convincing case for natural selection in determining the formation of universes. [42]

 

C. The chance that a dominant supermassive black hole will form a universe increases with its mass and the availability of dark energy. Ultra large supermassive black holes result in the formation of very large universes that will make more large universes along with some small universes, as shown in the equation Mu= S2.C2. In universes dark energy flows to the largest black holes, which will result in the formation of large universes and few, if any, small ones. The larger the universe, the less likely it is to fail to produce more universes.

 

D. Failure rate of black holes forming universes is inversely related to the mass of the black hole relative to the universe. As many things can fail in universe creation, the likelihood of complete failure is reduced when a universe produces a significant number of very large supermassive black holes that are most likely to successfully produce more universes.

 

E. Under normal galaxy cluster consolidation, only one dominant supermassive black hole singularity will form one universe per galaxy cluster that is bound gravitationally.

 

F. The number of new universes formed from a universe may be any number from zero to very large. The limiting factors controlling the number of new universes are mass, entropy, and efficiency in forming dominant supermassive black holes of the parent universe.

 

G. The information needed to make a universe is the only information that must be retained by the next generation of universes. Some general statistical information of the black hole singularity that formed the universe may be retained. The most plausible location for this information is in the singularity on the sub quantum level such as one-dimensional strings.

 

All other information could eventually be lost when the universe degeneration is complete. [38] A specific knowledge of prior universes may be lost; this is analogous to the role DNA plays in the generation of new life. Some schools of physics maintain that all information is retained forever because the laws of physics would not work if information is lost. While the concern is valid, it is based on the premise that there is no other way for information to be carried except by the law of conservation of information. The singularity acceleration model maintains that sufficient information to make more universes can be carried forward with the singularity, and no other information is needed. Specific information is lost in each generation of universe formation, and all specific information of each universe is eventually lost except for the legacy of physical law that formed the next universe generation. This premise is based on Axiom 2A, “Nothing in nature forms and survives very long with significant superfluous components.”

 

H. The residual parts of all universes degenerate. All mass in the universe has two possible outcomes: either it becomes part of a dominant supermassive black hole and participates in the formation of a new universe, or it degenerates into nothing as described by Hawking radiation, proton decay, and other forms of degeneration. [44]

 

2.9 Axiom 9. Every universe has a beginning and an end. The first micro universes were formed by spontaneously occurring quantum events sufficiently concentrated to make a micro black hole.

 

A. Universe formation systems (multiverses) have a beginning and may have an end. Every universe has a beginning and an end.

 

B. First micro universes.

Prior to the formation of any universe, small spontaneous events occurred, probably on the subatomic scale as predicted by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. No matter how unlikely, some event or series of events started the universe formation process, since our universe exists. With infinite potential time available, some unlikely combination of small events occurred. This micro universe hypothesis is speculative, but it may stimulate discussion and other ideas on the probability of micro universes serving as the initiating source of universe formation and evolution.

 

This plausible description provides an example of how the first micro universe could have formed in a singularity acceleration system. The first micro universe was formed when several quantum events occurred spontaneously with sufficiently concentrated particles to make a micro black hole. In this case the black hole was not in a universe; however, it functioned as the equivalent of a micro universe. Given enough time it is reasonable to assume that many spontaneous black holes occurred at about the same time and place. In a rare event, these micro black holes nearly collided and were flung apart and accelerated by gravity assists. The acceleration slowed the black hole decay process long enough for subsequent near collisions to occur with other micro black holes. Several gravity assists caused by near collisions could accelerate the micro black hole singularity to the speed of light, creating the first universe caused by a big bang, be it a very small one. This process probably occurred very quickly, maybe in less than a second.

 

C. Subsequent micro universes

The natural selection process results in larger universes that become more effective in making more universes. Occasionally a change occurs in a law of physics that leads to something new that works to make the production of universes more efficient. The chances of this process working within an infinitesimally small scale universe and evolving a sequence of increasingly large universes that resulted in a much larger universe seem small. However, given the incredibly long time spans involved, eventually a reliable system for producing universes was likely to happen, as demonstrated by the fact that one exists.

 

After the first micro universe came into existence, subsequent micro universes would likely evolve and sometimes fail to make more universes. Eventually a sequence worked over many generations that resulted in larger singularities that formed larger universes. Universe evolution would eventually solve all the problems necessary to make large universes with baryonic matter and many stars because we have the evidence of our existence. It is plausible that not every micro universe was successful, and even every universe sequence that formed star systems may not have succeeded in creating other universes. The unsuccessful universes would disappear given enough time, leaving no trace after degeneration. Statistical probability dictates that eventually universes would have happened upon laws that consistently made more universes. Given enough attempts, a system evolved that solved several problems, such as how to get a singularity to warp space at the speed of light and how to multiply mass during a big bang. In addition, new universes would have evolved laws of physics so all the components usually associated with the universe, such as baryonic and dark matter, gravityelectromagnetism, strong and weak forces, and the speed of light, would be within the physical parameters needed for any universe to make another generation. [41] After more generations of these early stage micro universes, subsequent generations became larger. The processes evolved that caused some new universes to produce stars that made blacks holes and galaxies.

 

3. Discussion – An explanation and discussion of consequences of some of the universe formation Axioms based on the singularity acceleration hypothesis.

 

3.1 A plausible sequence summary of universe formation from nothing to the future, based on the singularity acceleration hypothesis

This is a plausible list of five levels of prior universes in sequence. The first three are proposed as an example of how the singularity acceleration model could be applied to universes that arose prior to the existence of stars and galaxies. These levels may not be verifiable events, and whatever occurred in the time when nothing existed prior to the formation of the first star will be difficult prove within a reasonable degree of certainty.

1.    Spontaneous and simultaneous subatomic events based on the uncertainty principle [12] result in the formation of several micro black holes. In an even rarer occurrence, the micro black hole decay does not occur before its interaction accelerates to the speed of light, causing a big bang which then forms the first micro universe.

2.    One or more universe generations of micro universes evolved from black holes.

3.    One or more universe generations with at least one star formed a black hole(s).

4.    One or more universe generations formed in which a galaxy was a critical component.

5.    Many universe generations formed in which galaxy clusters were critical components.

 

3.2 Each universe component has a function and a role in causing a new universe. They are summarized in figure 1.

 

Significant Function in Universe

Baryonic matter

Energy

Dark energy

Dark matter

Gravity

Effect that contributes to singularity probability for causing a big bang

Forms galaxies, clusters supermassive black holes

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

Essential to make universe components

Consolidates galaxies

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

Maximizes potential mass of the black hole singularity

Increases mid-stage supermassive black hole singularity mass

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

Essential process to form dominant supermassive black holes

Separates universe into galaxy cluster or equivalent units that can become black holes and increases distance between galaxy clusters

 

 

Y

 

 

Reduces gravitational attraction between a supermassive black hole singularity and its galaxy and cluster

Contributes to increasing late-stage dominant supermassive black hole singularity mass

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Increased mass allows singularity to attain sufficient mass and attract dark energy to accelerate the space warp to the speed of light.

Accelerates singularities

 

 

Y

 

Y

If the space warp of theles ( black holes (R#)(F)ontaneous violation of parity singularity reaches the speed of light, a big bang will occur.

 

Figure 1. Cosmic Component Function and Effect on Universe Formation Table

 

3.3 Simultaneous universe expanding and combining components are essential to making more universes

All galaxies appear to have supermassive black holes at their center. Over hundreds of billions of years, much of the mass in galaxy clusters that successfully holds together against the dark energy-driven expansion will become part of dominant supermassive black holes. When galaxies with their black holes pass close enough to each other for the black holes to go into mutual orbit, they appear to be dancing. Their orbits are very elliptical and progress in a series of advancing elliptical orbits that disrupt stellar orbits, allowing many more stars to be swallowed by the black holes prior to their eventual merger. When galaxies collide, this occurrence usually results in the black holes at their center colliding in extraordinary events that culminate in building dominant supermassive black holes. Given sufficient time, this combination of both gradual and extraordinary rapid growth (heavy duty cycle) will result in black holes that are much larger than the supermassive black holes known to exist now. As the stars are widely dispersed, many black hole mergers are required for the majority of the galaxy cluster to become part of the dominant black hole. A very rough estimate of the time required for all black holes to have merged and to have consumed most of the other material in the galaxy cluster is 1012 to 1015 years from the Big Bang. The remaining small black holes, stars, dust, and gas not consumed by supermassive black holes will eventually degenerate over a very long time. [45]

 

3.4 How a black hole singularity can form a large universe

The following four phenomena summarize how a black hole can make a big bang large enough to form a universe the size of ours.

1.    Galaxy clusters consolidate into dominant supermassive black holes.

2.    These three factors cause a reduction of gravitational attraction between dominant supermassive black holes and all other matter:

a.    The space warp increases as the singularity gains mass, increasing the distance between the black hole singularity and its galaxy.

b.    The galaxy cluster loses mass to the black hole singularity, reducing its attractive force on the singularity.

c.    Dark energy pushes the rest of the universe beyond the event horizon of the black hole, substantially reducing the gravitation attraction between the two.

3.    Dominant supermassive black hole singularities act as a catalyst for dark energy which provides most of the mass for a new universe. Dark energy is added to the mass of the singularity by the law of conservation of motion [38] during the dark dimension acceleration of the singularity to the speed of light.

4.    The big bang mass-multiplying effect, summarized by the equation Mu= S2.C2, may be a CP violation or equivalent function that occurs during the big bang phase transition.

 

The idea that a black hole singularity was the cause of the Big Bang that formed our universe might be widely accepted if the difference in mass between the two was not so great. The table in figure 2 lists a plausible means for a supermassive black hole to be a credible cause of a universe-forming big bang. It is likely that more massive black holes in even larger galaxies and galaxy clusters will be found and that one of these yet undiscovered giant black holes, using singularity acceleration, could produce an even larger universe than our own; however, NGC 4889 is the largest known black hole to date and is used as the example in figure 2.

Applying the results of the cosmological process analysis to our universe starting at the Big Bang, the sequence of major events is grouped into five somewhat overlapping eras.

1. The very early epochs of the universe from the Planck epoch through the photon epoch is explained in numerous documents elsewhere. [44, 46]

            2. The structural formation universe begins with the formation of stars, black holes, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and a supercluster. Dark energy contributes to the acceleration of the expanding universe. The gravitational force of baryonic mater and dark matter holds together galaxies, galaxy clusters, and in some cases galaxy filaments, also called supercluster complexes or great walls, to the extent that many of these components remain gravitationally bound despite the expansion of the universe.

3. The consolidation era begins during the structural formation era and continues at least 1014 years after the big bang in which supermassive black holes come to dominate the universe. Black holes at the center of galaxies consume stars, dust, and gas, and when orbit disturbance, caused by collisions with other galaxies, occurs, the rate greatly increases as the black holes orbit each other and eventually merge. Often black holes have dormant periods in which they consume almost nothing. The consolidation process appears slow but persistent as the black holes merge with most everything that is sufficiently bound by gravity. Eventually, a dominant black hole singularity will emerge from mergers of the remaining blank holes in the galaxy cluster, and in some the cases, supercluster or supercluster complex. Thus, gravitation makes a black hole singularity from the matter and energy it consumes. It continues this until the remaining amount of the galaxy or galaxy cluster has insufficient gravitational attraction to prevent singularity space warp acceleration.

4. The black hole singularity acceleration era overlaps the previous era as dominant supermassive black holes will separate and break the bonds of gravity with the universe. The space warp of these massive black holes becomes many light years deep, as the force of dark energy increases and accelerates the singularity. As more dark energy flows into the warp, the pressure increase is analogous to that of higher pressure at greater water depths, except that the pressure driving the singularity may be ten to 10,000 light years deep. Almost all the dark energy that can possibly “flow” into each of these very large black holes will do so, resulting in most of the dark energy available in the universe being applied to singularity acceleration. The law of momentum conservation means that the singularity’s acceleration increases its mass. Thus, as dark energy is applied to the movement of the singularity, it effectively increases the size of both the singularity by three to six orders of magnitude. Small black holes will revive little dark energy and will either not form any universes or form only small or sterile ones.

5. The gravitational singularity conversion epoch occurs when the singularity reaches the speed of light, loses all gravitational attraction with and separates from its universe, becomes naked, and enters a phase transition. The laws of its previous universe are superseded by this phase transition to the big bang laws, which, in addition to causing a big bang, convert the gravitational force into a new universe and significantly increase total mass, as shown in the equation Mu= S2.C2. A plausible explanation may be that the explosive turbulence of the big bang causes a CP symmetry violation. A CP violation allows the matter to exist and antimatter to be annihilated when the two meet. These factors may also result in more mass being created than had originally existed in the black hole singularity before a big bang.

 

We are in the very early life cycle of our universe, so supermassive black holes at the center of each galaxy typically have only one percent of the mass of their galaxy. This example assumes for demonstration purposes that only one percent of the mass in the Bernice’s supercluster complex of recoverable mass is part of black holes now. Given as much as a thousand times longer than the universe has existed, black holes will grow by a factor of two by consuming most of the mass in their galaxies, as they simultaneously merge with the black holes in their galaxy, galaxy cluster, and cluster complex. All of this consolidation of the mass in the supercluster complex results in six orders of magnitude from the present size of 2 x 1039 kg. Figure 2 shows an approximate two orders of magnitude for each level moving from consolidation of the mass of a galaxy, cluster, and supercluster. In reality, the consolidation levels overlap considerably and vary immensely, depending on the galaxy clusters. For example, the eventual merger of Andromeda with the Milky Way will result in a much smaller dominant supermassive black hole than NGC 4889 and a relatively small universe. During this consolidation time, all other galaxies not associated with our cluster will lose gravitational attraction and disappear over the event horizon. [11]

 

The size of our universe is about 13 orders of magnitude larger than black hole NGC 4889. [47] Figure 2 summarizes the approximate and plausible growth in five overlapping phases of how it could become the size of our universe. It is also likely that even larger supermassive black holes exist in our universe and have not yet been discovered.

 

Object

Increase in

Orders of Magnitude

Resulting mass

Approximate mass multiplication of each step in the sequence allowing 1015  years after the Big Bang

Sun [48]

 

2 x 1030 kg

Present mass

Milky Way black hole [49]

 

8.5 × 1036 kg

Present mass

Andromeda Galaxy

 

2 x 1038 kg

Present mass

Black hole NGC 4889

 

2 x 1039 kg

Present mass - 21 billion suns

Combinable mass of NGC 4889 galaxy [50]

2

2 x 1041 kg

Black hole is .5% of its galaxy’s recoverable mass

Combinable mass of NGC 4889 galaxy, Coma Berenices galaxy cluster

2

2 x 1043 kg

Galaxy is .5% of its cluster’s recoverable mass

Consolidation of part of the Berenices galaxy supercluster complex

2

2 x 1045 kg

The galaxy cluster is .5% of the recoverable mass of its supercluster complex

Mass of the dark energy applied to the singularity

3

2 x 1048 kg

The acceleration caused by dark energy adds mass times 1000

Big bang mass multiplier Mu= S2.C2  less loss from an imperfect CP violation

4

2 x 1052 kg

Mass times 10,000 results in a universe slightly small than ours

Our universe [51]

 

6 x 1052 kg +?

 

 

Figure 2. A table of a hypothetical dominant supermassive black hole growth leading to universe-forming singularity

 

To demonstrate the application of the singularity acceleration model, a very rough calculation using the black hole at the center of NGC 4889 in the Coma constellation will provide an idea of the size of the universe that it will create. This black hole weighs about 21 billion suns. To expedite the calculation, I will make some assumptions. These approximations use the best available but inadequate information and could be off by several orders of magnitude. Allowing up to 1000 times its current age, Black Hole 4889 will consume most of its galaxy, which will multiply its size by 100, consume much of its galaxy cluster multiplying it by another factor of 100, and consume some of its supercluster complex, another factor of 100. An even less exact estimate of the force applied by dark energy to accelerate the singularity to the speed of light is 1,000, resulting in a total mass of 2 x 1048 kg. The final step applies the proposed big bang mass multiplier Mu= S2.C2, less the efficiency loss from an imperfect CP violation. Somewhat arbitrary, these estimates may offset each other and leave a multiplier of 10,000 and result in a universe weight of 2 x 1052 kg, which is modestly smaller than our universe. The confidence level of this estimate is very low, so the universe resulting from BH NGC 4889 could be a universe similar to, larger than, or many orders of magnitude smaller than our universe. It is also likely that even larger supermassive black holes exist in our universe but have not yet been discovered that could produce a larger universe.

 

3.5 Dark energy accelerates the space warp of dominant supermassive black hole singularities to the speed of light.

As the gravitational attraction between the singularity and the universe drops effectively to zero, the velocity of the singularity increases its warp of space [4, 52] and eventually warps space at the speed of light pushed by dark energy. As the speed of the singularity increases, it effectively gains mass which is coming from the dark energy driving the acceleration. Dark energy accounts for about 75 percent of the mass of the universe now, and as the universe expands, the amount of dark energy increases. It is the most likely source of energy for forming the next generation of universes. Since acceleration adds to mass, the singularity mass will increase by several orders of magnitude as it reaches the speed of light. The force that dark energy applies to a singularity is analogous to water pressure that is expressed as p = gdr where pressure, p, is equal to the gravitational acceleration, g, times the distance, d, times the density of the singularity, r. This equation is simplified as there are more variables and other factors; however, it shows the enormous forces that are involved.

 

The following analogy may be helpful in understanding the process of singularity acceleration. Imagine a three-dimensional rotating cylinder made of a very stretchy, flexible membrane. Varying sizes of spheres are located on the membrane. They press into and warp the membrane from the centripetal force as the cylinder spins. This cylinder analogy has several additional characteristics. The spheres are attracted to each other and can move around on the membrane. When two spheres merge, they become a single sphere. A layer of water covers the membrane. When two spheres are close, their holes will merge. The more massive balls stretch the membrane more and have deeper holes that get even deeper every time a sphere falls into its hole. Water drains into the largest depressions and causes the spheres to stretch the membrane deeper. The sphere accelerates, moving ever deeper as the water pressure increases and the distance from the axis rotational speed increases. The mass of the sphere increases as water is absorbed. This is analogous to the increase of mass caused by the acceleration of a body. When the force from acceleration of the sphere exceeds the strength of the fabric, the sphere breaks loose and explodes. Dark energy also applies force to black hole singularities, accelerating the bending of space, i.e. singularity acceleration. The largest and first spheres will drain the greatest amount of water and will make the largest explosions. Smaller spheres will receive less water and in most cases may not break the cylinder fabric.

 

3.6 Contrast of the bursting singularity and the Smolin bouncing black hole theory

In general, the singularity acceleration hypothesis could be classified within the bouncing black hole theories of universe formation. [42] The term “burst” might provide a better resemblance of the phenomena, as “bounce” implies a change of direction.

 

The singularity acceleration model posits that a singularity warps space at the speed of light, bursting from its universe, leaving its universe’s laws, entering a phase transition to become a naked singularity, and causing a big bang to form a new universe with new physical laws. The singularity acceleration model maintains that density alone cannot cause gravity to become repellant and that the only limit to the mass of a singularity is the amount of mass available to it from its galaxy and cluster. The discovery of NGC 4889 lends support to the idea that black holes have, in principle, no maximum size limit and are only constrained by the mass available to them in their galaxy cluster.

 

The Smolin bouncing black hole model posits that the universe is created as an explosion by an extraordinarily compressed black hole at Planck density which causes gravity to become repellant due to quantum corrections and causes a big bang.[42]

 

The two hypotheses explain universe formation with certain parallel functions as cosmological evolution and the importance of black holes, but differ for example on the importance of scale. Lee Smolin was an early proponent of and has been one of the most articulate physicists explaining cosmological evolution. [42, 43] He maintained that cosmological evolution favors universes that maximize the number of black holes, whereas the singularity acceleration hypothesis maintains that universe formation is maximized for some extraordinarily supermassive black holes.

 

3.7 Something from nothing

The Krauss “something from nothing” universe formation theory posits that the “nothing” in space can be part of the expansion by using virtual particles. The “something from nothing” proposed by Lawrence Krauss maintains that “…our observable universe can start out as a microscopically small region of space… and still grow to enormous scales containing… all without costing a drop of energy, with enough matter and radiation to account for everything we see today!” [18]

 

The singularity acceleration model is compatible with the Krauss process; however, it requires the Krauss process to occur as part of a sequence with other events. Set 1 of the universe formation Axioms rules out a one-step process. It implies that the Krauss “something from nothing” process needs the catalyst of the acceleration of a supermassive black hole singularity to cause “small-density fluctuations in empty space due to the rules of quantum mechanics… [To] be responsible for all the structure…in the universe.” [18]

 

3.8 The theorized descriptions, rules, and processes of cosmological evolution necessary for a sequence or line of universes to continue producing new universes are listed below. This list was developed by applying the applicable components of biological evolution and physics to the singularity acceleration model of cosmology. If the singularity hypothesis is true, then the following is a plausible list of laws governing universe evolution.

 

If it is possible for a universe to form, it will; and if it is possible for universes to evolve systems to make more universes, they will. And, if it is possible for universes to evolve systems that become more reliable in producing more or larger universes, they will, given sufficient time. This law requires at least occasional variation to occur between succeeding universe generations. Mixing genes with a bi-sexual system is helpful in a biologic evolutionary system as life is competitive. In principle, there is no competition for space which is free to any newly formed universe; therefore, the universe formation system is not competitive and affected by the existence of other universes.

1.    There are many universes and many generations of universes.

2.    Universe evolution is a process that discovers which set of formation laws work best to produce more universes.

3.    Each new universe creates a new place, time, and physical laws for itself.

4.    If it is possible for a function to make a universe that is more reliable in producing more or larger universes, it will occur given sufficient time, up to the limit of perfect reliability and efficiency.

5.    Universe evolution is not intentional. Universes have no motivation, plan, goal, desire, or sense of accomplishment.

6.    Effective universe reproduction does the following:

a.    Constructs baryonic matter and dark matter in large super clusters that are consumed by black holes,

b.    Removes the gravitational influence between galaxy clusters,

c.    Develops the optimum ratios of all forms of matter and energy,

d.    Has an optimum high percentage of dark energy that makes very large black holes singularities that can warp space at the speed of light,

e.    And conforms to the laws of singularity acceleration with a phase transition with suspended laws of physics including a big bang.

7.    Each family of universes will continue to produce new universes provided that the changes that occur in each new universe generation are within the functional probability limits of reproduction occurring and that the universe the information necessary to make more universes.

8.    Increased efficiency in producing universes by a line of universes requires that there be at least an occasional variation in physical laws between succeeding universe generations. 

9.    Each family of universes must evolve a means to create at least an occasional universe containing more mass than did the prior one.

10. Once formed, universe evolution is not influenced by any other universes.

11. Universe production does not benefit from diversity branching since there are no specialty niches. There is only one environment in which universes exist, which essentially is nothing. Differential survival is not a factor in universe reproductive effectiveness, unlike biological evolution. Universes do not compete with each other for resources, whereas organisms do compete with one another for resources and mates. The only criterion for universe success is that the universe makes more universes.

12. Universes have no time constraints from outside factors. Therefore, they can take considerable time to reproduce, unlike in biological evolution where an organism (or group) must replicate itself as much and as often as possible within the parameters of its functionality.

13. Large universes, in principle, will produce multiple new universes, since large universes produce more supermassive black holes, statistically increasing the chance of reproductive success. Based on the equation Mu=S2.C2, the size of the resulting universes will be correlated with the size of the forming singularities, which means that sometimes, the resulting universe will be larger than the mother universe.

14. Each universe may produce anywhere from zero to millions of new universes. This formation process suggests that, over many generations of universe formation, an initial sequence of tiny universes formed, which eventually led to the formation of larger ones.

15. Large universes produce more large universes, since dark energy flows to the first and largest dominant supermassive black holes, depriving the later-forming and smaller black holes of enough dark energy to accelerate sufficiently to form a new universe.

16. Universes have life expectancies directly correlated with their total mass, and all end eventually, with incomplete records of existence except for the information contained in the daughter universes. This is a lengthy process, as in our case, as much as 10100 years.

17. The changes that occur in each new universe generation will usually be small. [13, 42] It does not necessarily take the most efficient path to achieve each universe, only that the sequence works at each step. Other information may or may not be carried forward, which means that information is lost between universe generations.

18. Universes may or may not reproduce. Universes with laws of physics that are outside the effective bounds of reproductive functionality will not effectively reproduce.

19. Some black hole singularities will fail to cause a big bang or fail to consolidate with a black hole that does. Relative mass of a singularity to the galaxy cluster and access to dark energy are the main factors in the singularity’s chance of successfully creating new a universe.

20. The next generation of some universes may be less massive than the parent universe.

21. A perfectly efficient universe that used all of its mass in the creation of one or more additional universes is not possible.

22. Gravitation will likely be the only means possible to measure inter-universe contact. Energy, mass, and information cannot be detected between universes except in rare instances of gravitational contact.

23. When a singularity separates from its universe, the laws for the parent universe no longer apply. Inflation occurs during the very early short period of the new universe as it expands at a speed greater than the speed of light. One of the first laws of the new universe is the light speed limit. Any new universe that does not set this limit will not make any more universes.

24. All universes will have some laws and components that are identical in every universe. Examples of such laws are the speed of light, the four forces, such components as baryonic and dark matter and dark energy, and certain critical ratios. [41] Some other ratios will vary.

 

3.9 Ineffective universe formation factors

Each universe generation copies its laws from its parent universe; however, some variation between universes will occur as that is the nature of any evolutionary system. This variation is necessary for the discovery of better working systems. [42] However, failure results when a universe has laws that result in no or dysfunctional black holes or other components. The process of finding better methods of making universes results in some failures.

 

The singularity acceleration universe formation process will strongly favor universes with physical laws that make very large black hole singularities. Any universe that has formed physical laws that are less effective in creating black hole singularities will produce fewer universes or none at all. Thus, a nonproductive universe line will eventually become extinct as its universes degenerate. Over many generations, universes will coalesce around certain laws and processes that are effective in making more universes. Only a few black hole singularities will make large universes. Most black holes do not cause big bangs, and not all universes are successful in making more universes. Below are potential factors that contribute to universe reproductive failure.

1.    Entropy in the universe is too even, resulting in no or fewer and smaller black holes and fewer black hole mergers.

2.    Universes with less effective ratios of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter will have fewer large black holes.

3.    Chance is a factor which will result in some small universes failing even when all the laws are within functional parameters. If most galaxy clusters do not lead to the formation of new universes or lead only to universes smaller than the galaxy cluster, then the chances of a universe with only a few galaxy clusters not producing a universe are greater than those of a universe with millions of galaxies.

4.    Micro and other small universes may be more prone to reproductive failure than are large universes, since the chance of a small universe’s few singularities not producing a universe is much greater than that of all of the singularities in a large universe failing to make a universe.

5.    If supermassive black hole reaches stability with its galaxy and has insufficient mass due to insufficient dark matter or the presence of other galaxies to disturb the orbits of stars and other matter in it, then it may not separate from its universe and make a universe. The result will be that the galaxy and its black hole will degenerate [28] rather than form a new universe. The singularity will have insufficient acceleration to separate from its universe and will be unable to cause a big bang.

 

3.10 Information loss associated with universe formation

There are six definitions or degrees of information loss of interest to physics. In terms of their importance in forming universes, the “universe formation information retention principle” posits that only information that is needed is essential and will not be lost between universes. The singularity acceleration hypothesis implies that the other five degrees of information loss could all be accurate and indicate that universes function with some information loss. These several definitions of information loss may contradict conventions held by some physicists. [53, 54]

Ø  Absolute information loss

Based on Law 8 – “All mass in the universe has two possible outcomes. It either becomes part of a dominant supermassive black hole, which is part of the formation of a new universe, or it degenerates into nothing.”  If this is true, then it is likely that the information degenerates with the remnants of the universe or is mostly lost in the big bang. However, this concept is probably not testable, so less restrictive criteria levels are proposed.

Ø  Economic information loss

Information is effectively lost from a system if the cost or energy required to retrieve it exceeds all of the wealth or energy available in the system, less the cost of the efficiency of the information retrieval system. For example, if all of the energy in the universe could be directed in the most efficient method to recover all the information that went into a black hole, and the effort succeeded in recovering it all, then one could conclude that no information was lost by this definition. If this method did not recover all information, then information is lost by this definition.

Ø  Economics of effective information loss

Economic information loss has a corollary, which is that information is effectively lost from a system if the energy or cost required to retrieve it exceeds the energy or wealth reasonably available to be used in its recovery.

Ø  Functional information loss

Information is lost if it will never have any effect on anything and could never have had any effect on anything. If the film of information as described by Hawking [54] exists like a halo around the universe and if it can survive the complete degeneration of the universe on some level of such a one-dimensional string, it may not be lost. However, information in this form is irrelevant since it will have no effect on anything.

Ø  Information loss between universes

Most information cannot be transferred between universes, as they do not exist in the same time and place and have no means with which to share information. With the exception of gravitation, universes would not have any effect on one another even if they did overlap in time and space. A big bang phase transition acts as a barrier between the parent and the new universe for most information.

Ø  Universe formation information retention

Each new universe that successfully reproduces must be functional and carry the information necessary to make more universes. Only information needed to make the universe is assured to be conveyed. Other information may or may not be carried forward, which means that information is lost between universe generations. It is likely that all specific information about an object or event in the parent universe is lost to the new universe. The information that is carried forward as part of the new universe is the only information that is never lost and is not irrelevant. Axiom set 2A states that “nothing in nature forms and survives very long with significant superfluous components.” Successfully reproducing universes have no advantage to evolve a system to retain unnecessary and certainly not all information about everything and every event that ever occurred in the universe.

 

3.11 A summary of the last stages in the life of a universe based on the singularity acceleration hypothesis

1.    All supermassive black holes with sufficient dark energy will have separated from the universe and formed new universes.

2.    The residual parts of galaxy clusters will have been pushed over the event horizon and are no longer gravitationally linked to the remnants of other galaxies and clusters.

3.    In most cases residual mass of the universe will not have enough gravitational mass to form a supermassive black hole or enough dark energy to warp space to form a new universe.

4.    Degeneration will slowly end the existence of the residual mass. [18, 44]

 

3.12 Functional unification of the four forces

The singularity acceleration hypothesis posits that gravitation is functionally unified with all other forces in a singularity. A dominant supermassive black hole consumes much of everything in its galaxy and its cluster; nothing is exempt, and dark matter, baryonic mater, and even dark energy are co-opted in building massive singularities. All forms of mass become part of the singularity and adopt its fundamental nature which is gravitation. That is, a singularity is all energy in the form of gravitation and could be referred to as a gravity singularity. It should be noted that general relativity does not consider gravitation a force but a warping of space-time; however, it functions as if it is a force for the purposes of this analysis.

 

These singularities cause a big bang as they warp space at the speed of light and separate from their universe. Big bangs occur when a singularity is no longer governed by laws of its previous universe resulting in a gravitational disruption of a singularity allowing the energy to be released. After a big bang, what was a singularity is converted to various forms of matter and energy in a new universe.

 

Singularity acceleration universe formation is a cyclic process analogous to a branching universe having the following seven phases reoccurring in each daughter universe:

1. A phase transition big bang that forms a new universe

2. Expansion of the new universe and its structure

3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy

4. Isolation of its galaxy clusters and supercluster complexes beyond event horizons

5. Many separate consolidations of all forms of matter, forces, and energy within these supercluster complexes into dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularities

6. The resulting acceleration of singularities warping space to the speed of light

7. The independent separation of each of these singularities from the universe causing a big bang phase transition and producing all forms of matter, forces, and energy in a new universe.

This sequence explains a functional unification of gravity with the other three forces.

 

4. Test of Hypothesis

The singularity acceleration hypothesis has seven major concepts that may be evaluated or tested somewhat independently of each other. If these basic concepts can be proven, then the numerous other proposed secondary hypotheses will be confirmed, subsequently be confirmed from unanticipated information, or be shown to be the most plausible explanation of universe formation.

1.    The expansion of the universe will form distinct sections with galaxy clusters and supercluster gravitationally bound to each other but separated from the rest of the universe, which will disappear over the event horizon of each section.

2.    Galaxy clusters and sometimes supercluster will consolidate primarily into supermassive black holes.

3.    Single dominant supermassive black hole singularities will consolidate all of the mass in the black holes that are gravitationally bound over hundreds of billions of years or more.

4.    Dark energy will push and assist the bending of space to the speed of light by the dominant supermassive black hole singularities which act as a catalyst for dark energy to supply most of the energy for the big bang.

5.    The separation of a singularity from the universe will cause a phase transition suspending the laws of gravitation attraction, inflation mass-multiplying effect, and CP violation.

6.    The existence of other universes will support the singularity acceleration hypothesis.

7.    The possibility of a micro black hole forming outside of a universe will support the singularity acceleration hypothesis.

 

Computer simulation provides the most practical verification of this hypothesis

Models of the following hypothesized phenomena would provide the best means to determine the value of the singularity acceleration concept in explaining the formation of the universe.

 

1. The evidence for the universe expansion and separation and the concurrent consolidation of galaxies within clusters has been demonstrated by Nagamine, Kentaro, Loeb, and Abraham when they calculated the eventual merger of Andromeda and the Milky Way Galaxies along with some smaller galaxies. They also predict that, as a result of the universe expansion, this consolidated galaxy will be separated from the rest of the universe and disappear over the event horizon. [11] This concept appears applicable to the entire universe; however, more information would substantiate the principle. Data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) and other projects will likely confirm this theory. [55]

 

2. The singularity acceleration model predicts that over hundreds of billions of years, supermassive black holes will gain mass relative to the mass in their galaxies. The accretion and merger process is necessary for the supermassive black holes to become dominant and their singularities to escape from the universe. This is a very slow process; however, there should be some difference over five or six billion years. A test that may be feasible in the future would compare the mass ratios of supermassive black holes to their galaxies in two significant samples: one sample of nearby galaxy clusters and another sample of selected galaxy clusters about six billion light years away, which in effect are providing information from six billion years ago. Careful controls for comparable clusters and dark matter should be selected to ensure appropriately comparable galaxies are being studied. The total mass of the supermassive black holes in a galaxy cluster compared to all the mass in their cluster can be averaged with several hundred clusters. The difference in the ratio of supermassive black hole mass to the total galaxy mass between the distant galaxies and the nearby clusters would be small, maybe only one hundredth of one percent. With present technology, any difference found may be within the bounds of experimental error; however, in principle this experiment would be able to predict the likelihood and the length of time needed for the formation of dominant supermassive black holes.

 

To determine when and where new universes will form requires calculations on the probability of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and a supercluster complex being sufficiently linked by gravity to be a region in which the majority of the matter and energy will be consolidated into a dominant supermassive black hole. A study, similar to the one by Kentaro Nagamine and Abraham Loeb [11] for the visible universe would produce a map showing the long-term consolidation of galaxies. With the continual advances in astrophysics and related disciplines, such a map may be possible for parts of the universe closest to us. Subsequent calculations on the rate of consolidation within the region will provide estimates of when singularities will begin to separate. The final calculation will determine the rate of acceleration of the singularity. This could be affected by the drain rate or efficiency at which dark energy flows to the black hole singularity in order to accelerate it. Data from the BOSS and similar projects in the future will likely confirm this theory. [55]

 

3. The most practical method to understand singularity acceleration would be to construct a computer program to model the aging of the universe to determine if and when black hole singularities could reach space warp escape velocity and separate from the universe. Given enough information, a computer model could predict when and which specific galaxies and galaxy clusters will produce dominant supermassive black holes.

 

4. Unfortunately, to observe singularities causing big bangs requires a very long wait. The test of this hypothesis can be verified in the range of many tens of billions of years from now, as the most massive black holes will be in the process of escaping or will have escaped from the universe by then. However many of the galaxy clusters will be over the event horizon from each other which will prevent direct observation of these events. The plausibility of dominant supermassive black hole singularities being pushed by dark energy to accelerate of the space warp will be demonstrated by computer simulations.

 

As a more complete map of the universe is developed, it will be possible to calculate when a black hole singularity will accelerate and escape from the universe. This requires determining when its mass exceeds that of the gravitational force exerted on it by its galaxy and the universe. Calculating these forces will provide a reasonable estimate of the length of time until it separates from the universe and becomes a big bang.

 

The singularity acceleration hypothesis will predict when universes will make new universes. One method for predicting future big bangs is based upon supermassive black hole star consumption rates, the merging of black holes within galaxy clusters, and the expansion of the universe. One of the largest known black holes, OJ287, at 18 million suns, will consume a smaller orbiting black hole with 100,000 suns in about 10,000 years. [56] A computer simulation of this black hole singularity’s size relative to its galaxy may be a good example to use to project the time when it will separate from the universe, since it could be one of the first.

 

We are in the early history of our universe, and all supermassive black holes are probably in gravitational equilibrium with their galaxies. Thus, it is unlikely for singularity acceleration to have caused a new universe. The Penrose mechanism [38] provides one possibility for how universe formation occurred, since energy can be taken from a rotating black hole. A gravity assist is the way that a supermassive black hole that entered at exactly the right angle and speed of the Kerr space-time or ergosphere outside the event horizon of an even larger supermassive black hole could be stripped from its galaxy by the near miss with the larger supermassive black hole and would be accelerated at a higher rate of speed. “In summary, the Penrose process result in a decrease in the angular momentum of the larger black hole and that reduction corresponds to transference of energy whereby the momentum lost is converted to energy extracted.” [38] While this scenario is unlikely to have occurred in at such an early phase of our universe, this mechanism could cause the first new universe to form from our universe. Once the black hole has no constraining gravity from a galaxy or galaxy cluster, it might be able to overcome gravity of the universe and accelerate its space warp. The other singularity acceleration component requires that dark energy assist the singularity space warp. The combination of events that would provide sufficient dark energy to accelerate the singularity to reach the speed of light is unlikely to have happened and may not even be possible at such an early time in the history of the universe. A search for gravity waves from a departed free supermassive black hole singularity would be one way to verify the hypothesis. The last material entering a black hole that had not reached the singularity will cause perturbance in the parent universe once the singularity causes a big bang. This material would stay in the parent universe and should be detectable.

 

5. If inflation after the big bang occurs, the phase transition is proven to exist, at least for the duration of the inflation. It is plausible that in addition to suspending the speed of light limitation, gravitation is suspended, allowing the singularity to explode in a big bang and massive CP violations [10] to occur. The scenario in which a singularity enters into a phase transition when it separates from its universe, ending its laws, could be run as a computer simulation to at least confirm its plausibility. A computer simulation of the potential effectiveness of a CP violation or equivalent in producing a net increase in mass in the new universe over the mass of the singularity would also support the plausibility of the phase transition.

 

6. Gravitation is the most likely candidate for detecting and measuring other universes, and this method is far from certain to work. An example of gravitational influences from nearby universes could be the anomaly-affecting galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56. It and many other galaxy clusters appear as though they are being pulled toward an unknown and unseen object. [57] The most plausible explanation is that a large concentrated mass of dark matter is gravitationally attracting them. The first test would be to search for dark matter through the use of a gravitational lens. Dark matter would be invisible, but its gravitational force would act as a large mass and would not appear to be coming from a single point.

 

If dark matter is ruled out, then the anomaly-influencing galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56 could be the gravitational attraction of another universe. If gravitation from one universe can be detected in another, then it will be detected by distortions in galaxy movement. One plausible explanation is that a dominant supermassive black hole from another universe is in the process of separating from its universe and is encroaching upon our universe. This would be detected by gravitational influence upon parts of our universe that appear to be coming from a single point. The consequence of a dominant supermassive black hole singularity encroachment on another universe would be gravitational disruption; however, if it separated and formed a new universe within another universe, the gravitational influence from its big bang could become repulsive. This concept is only speculative.

 

Traditional astronomical methods of observing the cosmos will not detect other universes based on the singularity hypothesis, which predicts that each new universe forms its own space and time, and electromagnetic energy (light) will not leave the universe and thus is not detectable by observers in other universes. This limitation would also likely restrict the ability to detect remnants of the big bangs of earlier universes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.

 

7. To test the plausibility that micro black holes could have initiated the first universe, one would construct a computer simulation to model that possibility. The simulation would determine if micro black holes could use a gravity assist to accelerate another micro black hole sufficiently to extend their lifetime and allow subsequent gravity assists to accelerate them sufficiently to cause a micro big bang.

 

5. Conclusion

Universes exist on scales so removed from human experience that even the information from the most technologically advanced instrumentation is inadequate to determine the complete nature of reality. Working within this limitation, the singularity acceleration hypothesis uses functional processes to describe the workings of universe components before many of these components are completely understood.

 

Baryonic matter, energy, dark matter, dark energy, and the four forces all have critical functions and optimum ratios in the formation of universes as posited by the singularity acceleration hypothesis. Baryonic matter and energy cause matter to form stars, black holes, and galaxies. Black holes function to start and build galaxies. Dark matter functions to increase gravitational attraction of galaxies, thereby increasing entropy by concentrating mass in galaxies, galaxy clusters, and regions. This allows supermassive black holes to become the dominant article in their galaxy cluster or larger region. Supermassive black holes merge and eventually consume most of the mass of their region of space, leading to the formation of dominant supermassive black holes. Dark energy divides the universe into galaxy clusters that separate from each other and speed over the event horizon, becoming invisible to each other. Dominant supermassive black hole singularities use gravity to store energy gathered by consuming much of everything in their galaxy cluster through accretion and merging with galaxies and other black holes over many hundreds of billions of years. In the late stage of dominant supermassive black hole development, the gravitational attraction between the singularity and its galaxy decreases as its mass increases due to the increasing distance, i.e. depth, of the black hole and the decreasing mass of the galaxy.

 

Singularity acceleration posits that under certain conditions, dominant supermassive black hole singularities, propelled by gravity and then by dark energy, bends space. The singularity’s warp of space continues and accelerates with the addition of mass by accretion and by galaxy and black hole mergers over hundreds of billions of years. Dark energy functions to expand the entire universe and continues the expansion in the latter stage primarily by accelerating black hole singularities. Dark energy mass becomes a major component of the next generation of universes. Dark energy is always repulsive, but its function transitions to a complement of gravity in the latter stage of singularity acceleration according the singularity acceleration hypothesis.

 

The inflation era is part of a phase transition in which a singularity breaks its gravitational bonds with and separates from its universe. This is the most significant event in universe formation. It is presently known as the inflation era in which the early universe expansion rate exceeds the speed of light; however, there is much more. The laws of the universe end, causing a naked singularity and gravitation to be suspended, resulting in a big bang and a net gain in mass by the new universe, described by the equation Mu=S2.C2. A set of physical laws are established by the newly forming universe that may or may not be identical to those of the previous universe.

 

The basic premise of the singularity acceleration hypothesis is that a dominant supermassive black hole singularity will function as a catalyst for dark energy, causing the singularity to be accelerated and warp space at the speed of light, thereby separating from its universe and causing a big bang. Thus, dominant supermassive black hole singularities provide most of the mass for a new universe. The mass of dark energy is added to the mass of the black hole singularities as it propels the space warp acceleration of a singularity, based on the law of momentum conservation.

 

If the singularity acceleration hypothesis accurately describes the formation of the universe, then numerous implications exist for cosmology. At a minimum, the creation of new universes from our universe is, in principle, predictable in time, approximate relative location, and total number.

 

The functional gravitation unification cycle with the other forces is demonstrated as black hole singularities consume everything from baryonic and dark matter to energy and eventually the mass of dark energy, all of which are converted to gravitation in the singularity. A black hole singularity is fundamentally concentrated gravity. The phase transition between the old and new universes suspends physical laws, including gravitation causing the big bang in which everything is converted to various forms of matter and energy in a new universe. Over eons black hole singularities consume everything in the next cycle.

 

There are many universes, and the evolution of universes is analogous to a series of never-ending branches. These branches progress through seven unending phases of a big bang, expansion, dispersion, isolations, consolidations, acceleration, separations, and big bangs, as opposed to a circular model or a series of only expansions and contractions. The physical laws of the parent universe and the new universe may or may not be the same. Information is lost between the two universes. The occasional variations in physical laws between universe generations evolve to make a slightly more efficient replicating universe. Singularities bend space at the speed of light and burst from old universes to form new universes, creating their own new time and space, independent and invisible to any other universe. With no information shared after the creation of its big bang, each universe is adrift in its own space and time. An observer in one universe will never know for certain the specific nature of sibling or predecessor universes. The future of some of the mass of a universe that becomes part of its most massive black holes is to produce more universes, and everything else in the universe will degenerate into nothing over an exceedingly long time. All mass in the universe has two possible outcomes: it either becomes part of a dominant supermassive black hole, which forms a new universe, or it degenerates into nothing.

 

With the exception of the first few generations, all successful generations of universes would have used methods that functioned within a working range of the laws that form universes by singularity acceleration. Each subsequent universe refines the methods and increases its success rate by making larger black holes and producing more efficient combinations of physical laws. Since the potential space for new universes is infinite, universes do not compete. There is no elimination of less effective universes other than elimination by failure to reproduce and by degeneration of a universe. It is plausible that many universes exist simultaneously in different places. This universe formation process will strongly favor universes with physical laws that make very large black hole singularities and universes. The singularity acceleration model proposes an apparently endless cycle from smooth entropy at the big bang to extreme entropy of galaxy clusters, leading to dominant supermassive black holes that are used by self-replicating universes to produce new universes.

 

As often happens when one question is answered, many more questions arise. This hypothesis provides several interesting areas for research, experimentation, and development of mathematical models. These hypotheses need mathematical descriptions to verify and further demonstrate their usefulness. This publication should stimulate interest among mathematicians and physicists with resources to build the appropriate mathematical models.

 

Components of singularity acceleration could remain a hypothesis, at least until the following concepts can be explained further and mathematical models are presented.

Ø  Describe the phase transition of singularities during separation from the universe and acceleration driven by dark energy.

Ø  Develop a model explaining the unification of gravitation with all other forces when they transition from the mass of matter, energy, dark matter, and dark energy to gravitational force in black hole singularity acceleration.

Ø  Describe the phase transition of a gravitational singularity as it equals the speed of light, producing a big bang, and with the resulting universe having more mass than did the singularity. In the equation S2.C2 = Mu, S is the gravitation singularity, C is the speed of light, and Mu is the mass of the new universe.

Ø  Describe the CP violation during the big bang.

Ø  Produce a model of the first micro universe formed when subatomic particles or strings formed spontaneously and sufficiently concentrated space to make a micro black hole.

Ø  Produce a model of the evolution of universes demonstrating that the laws of physics evolve to produce more large universes.

Ø  Produce a model of the amount of mass remaining in an isolated galaxy cluster after a singularity separation occurs to determine if another dominant supermassive black hole can form, accelerate, and separate from the same cluster to make another universe.

 

6. Acknowledgements

Editing was done by Laura Lee Cascada.