Universe Formation from Gravitationally Bound Structures
Why and How I Discovered the Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis
Based on nine axioms, the laws of physics, and known phenomena, the hypothesis explains our universe as a part of a cycle of seven branching phases that reoccur in every universe.
John M. Wilson
Brevity in explaining the complex requires some oversimplification.
In order to keep these explanations short, some details, supporting arguments, and references have been substantially shortened or omitted from this document. Links to the relevant sections of the paper and other parts of the website provide references and supporting material. This section is an abbreviated version of the Singularity Acceleration paper. Serious researchers should study the manuscript.
Why is there something instead of nothing? Or stated another way, what caused the Big Bang? Questions like these have been of interest to me for about sixty years. I have wanted to work on these concepts for a long time; however, the practicality of earning a living and other adventures kept them below the top of the priorities list. In 2011 the list was rearranged, allowing me to devote significantly more time to big-picture discovery. This project is intended to inform both the scientific community and the public about plausible proposals of universe formation.
Dissatisfaction with most models of universe formation
Prime examples of unsatisfactory models include some of the parallel universe models which posit that new universes are formed with each decision everyone or everything makes. Thus, an alternative course of events results in two universes where only one existed. These models allow the number of new universes to grow exponentially. Some parallel universe models suggest a virtual explosion of new universes, with no explanation of the energy source or why this phenomenon would be viable. The error in these universe models occurs when the quantum uncertainty principle is incorrectly applied to things larger than an atom. These proposals seem best suited for providing exotic settings for science fantasy stories.
Other proposals of universe formation describe processes that are unlikely to ever be verified. They are often short on details about the cause of the Big Bang, and have ignored both applicable laws of relativity and clues of events in our universe that could have caused it. Some models imply that the Big Bang was a spontaneous one-step process, ignoring the reality that almost all complex processes are the result of a continuing refinement sequence or series of steps or phases that are often referred to as trial and error. This idea became Axiom 1 of the 9 axioms of universe formation principles.
The sum of everything in the universe is zero; however, matter separate from gravity has existed since the first universe.
Something from nothing proposals convincingly show that the universe is flat and that total of everything in the universe equals zero. That is, when gravity is subtracted from all forms of mass, the result is nothing. Some proponents claim that the Big Bang starts the process and that there was nothing before it. The Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis agrees that the sum of everything is zero. The Hypothesis maintains that there was a considerable amount of mass and gravity prior to our universe-forming Big Bang, and that the existence of functioning matter, energy, and gravity is necessary to cause big bangs. Gravity does not get completely subtracted from the mass in the universe until a universe degenerates into nothing, Axiom 8 H. To find an era in which there was truly nothing, one would have to go to the start of the first universe many universe generations ago. This first universe is described in Axiom 9.
Proposals should comply with the known rules of science and use components known to exist or that are theoretically possible.
Occam's razor (try the simplest solution first) should be applied to developing a universe formation model using relativity, quantum mechanics and mostly discovered parts and processes already known. Why not look to our universe to see if its history gives clues to a cause for a big bang in a future universe?
When I started this project to figure out what caused the Big Bang, it appeared that the discoveries made about our universe over the last 50 years provided all the components (baryonic matter, energy, black holes, dark matter, and dark energy) necessary to assemble the solution to the puzzle of what caused the Big Bang. Applying the laws of nature in a flat universe, based on general relativity and quantum mechanics, to the phenomenon of a dark energy-driven expanding universe may be adequate to describe the universe formation process. Thus, the universe forming hypothesis must meet these criteria:
1. Be based on the laws of nature in general and physics in particular;
2. Use only components known to exist, although they may not be understood completely;
3. Have conclusions that can, at least in principle, be verified;
4. Require any axioms needed for the hypothesis to be logical and compatible with scientific fact.
Is our universe telling us something?
As science discovered supermassive black holes, dark energy, and dark matter that represent the vast majority of the universe, the question arose: are these a significant part of the universe formation process? Could the events that have occurred in the first 13.7 billion years of our universe be part of a pattern that happened in a previous universe? Is our universe doing essentially the same thing that a preceding universe and its predecessor did? This concept forms the basis of Axiom 2, which states that all significant forms of matter and energy and all significant processes and events are critical to the formation of universes. Axioms 1 and 2 provide the philosophical basis of the Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis.
The most obvious clue about the cause of our universe is that the Big Bang looks like it came from a singularity.
Where could the Big Bang singularity have come from? What force and mechanism could make such a massive universe as ours? It did not come from our universe, since it did not exist at the time, and Axiom 1
rules out a spontaneous event. The next plausible source would be that the singularity came from another universe. There is no known force that could make a large singularity other than the gravity of a black hole. Axiom 3 states that gravity and black hole singularities are unique in their ability to concentrate and store large amounts of energy for very long periods of time. Thus, a massive singularity is the most likely candidate to cause a big bang.
What is the history of our universe we know so far that can be applied to universe creation in general?
The first part of the history of our universe can be condensed into three of seven general phases of universe formation, each with many eons.
Phase 1. A big bang that forms our universe
Phase 2. Expansion of our universe and its structure
Phase 3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy
From this history, two more phases of our universe can be predicted.
Each of its galaxy clusters and supercluster complexes becomes isolated from other galaxy clusters beyond event horizons, so each galaxy cluster is going to become its own independent universe in phase 4. Given hundreds of billions of years, galaxies within clusters collide and merge, as do their supermassive black holes. Within each super cluster all forms of matter, forces, and energy consolidate into a dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularity. This process provides the basis for Axiom 5, which states that simultaneous universe expansion and galaxy cluster consolidation are essential to making more universes. Gravity is pushing the singularity deeper and warping space, so the warp becomes many light years deep. The consolidation of much of the galaxy cluster into a dominant supermassive black hole describes phase 5. So far, this explanation describes five phases of universe formation, all of which are fairly conventional, and in principal, provable.
Why has this hypothesis not been proposed before? There is a problem.
The singularity that formed our Big Bang has every feature one would expect to occur in a supermassive black hole singularity that came from an earlier universe. There is just one problem, and that is the matter of scale. If it were not for a daunting size discrepancy of at least thirteen orders of magnitude between the mass of the largest known black hole singularity, NGC 4889, and the mass of our universe, the concept of black hole singularity-causing universe formation might have been considered possible. However, this idea was generally dismissed without serious study, even though black hole singularities would otherwise be considered the perfect candidate as the cause of the Big Bang. New information about extremely large supermassive black holes and the extent of dark energy provides the means for the Singularity Acceleration proposal to explain how a universe such as ours could be caused by a singularity from another universe. From the largest singularity, NGC 4889, I estimate that consolidation with everything in its supercluster complex provides about six orders of the needed thirteen orders of magnitude to be equal to the mass of our universe. If there are significantly larger galaxy clusters and complexes somewhere in the universe, we might start with another order of magnitude over that of NGC 4889. We might also gain another order of magnitude if a higher percentage of dark matter is consumed by supermassive black holes than estimated by this model. These two variables could add another one or two orders of magnitude. However, we are still short five to seven orders of magnitude for an existing supermassive black hole singularity to make a universe roughly equal the mass of our universe.
Dark energy changes everything for theoretical cosmologists.
The ramifications of the discovery of dark energy, dark matter, supermassive black holes, and inflation have only begun to impact physics in general and cosmology in particular. Dark energy generally has not been factored into all universe formation models, but when it is considered, dark energy changes everything. The function of dark energy is to push the universe apart, separating each super cluster over the event horizon from all other supercluster. In this later stage of the universe, all that is left in each separated unit is a dominant supermassive black hole, the unconsumed part of the galaxy cluster, and dark energy doing what it does best, pushing these two apart. This process is described by Axiom 6 which states that dominant supermassive black hole singularities can bend space at the speed of light. The mass of dark energy is applied to the singularity as it accelerates, increasing mass by using the E= m.c2 law of momentum conservation by at least 3 orders of magnitude and possibly more. Acceleration of singularities warping space to the speed of light is phase 6 of universe formation. This process would bring NGC 4889 to within one to four orders of magnitude of the mass of our universe.
Inflation tells the rest of the story, of a big bang phase transition from one universe to another.
Inflation provides the best evidence of a phase transition between universes in which the laws of nature are suspended. If the inflation period in the early formation of this universe is correct, then the rules of our universe and the previous universe were not in effect for a short time. This effectively nullifies the law of gravity, thus allowing the release of the energy stored in the singularity, which causes a big bang. With the laws of nature temporally suspended, inflation and the CP violation could occur. This becomes the basis of Axiom 7, which states that a big bang phase transition occurs when a singularity warps space at the speed of light and separates from its universe. A CP violation results in a substantial increase in the matter and energy in the new universe over the amount in the singularity. The Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis suggests that the larger the singularity, the more efficient the CP violation process or equivalent process is at making mass and annihilating antimatter, thereby increasing the mass of the larger universes. The mass creation equation Mu= S2.C2 shows the exponential increase in the production of matter in the most massive singularities, where Mu = the mass of the new universe, S = the mass of the singularity, and C = constant or the speed of light.
The separation of each singularity from the universe, causing a big bang phase transition, is phase 7 of the universe formation cycle. This plausible sequence of events accounts for the formation of a new universe from a large galaxy cluster within our universe, NGC 4884. This sequence of seven phases could be applied to all universe formation in a series of never-ending branches.
Why would this all happen? Cosmological evolution
In the universe, matter and energy function with the constraints or limits imposed by their nature. Some functions such as a big bang result in producing more matter. Cosmological evolution maintains that universe evolution is analogous to biological evolution, and given enough time, universes will occur that are more efficient in making more universes. This principle leads to the formulation of Axiom 8, Cosmological evolution: if it is possible for a universe to form, it will; and if it is possible for universes to evolve processes that form more universes, they will. The most reproductively efficient universes will become the most common. This idea that "if it can happen, it will happen" is fundamental to quantum mechanics, and Axiom 8 states the same principle as it applies to cosmological evolution.
The first micro universes could have formed by spontaneously occurring quantum events sufficiently concentrated to make a micro black hole. If the first eight axioms are true, this Axiom 9 could be true; however, it is presented as a plausible means in which the first generations of universes could have begun the process in a manner similar to the formation of all subsequent universes, using a modified version of the Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis.
Cosmological process analysis is used to develop the Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis, which is based on nine universe formation axioms. The resulting theorem explains the mechanism by which dominant supermassive black hole singularities form and capture all forms of matter and energy. Supermassive singularity separation from the universe leads to a big bang phase transition in which the laws of the universe do not apply. This results in the loss of gravitational attraction causing a big bang and inflation. Singularity acceleration universe formation is a cyclic process analogous to a branching universe, having the following seven phases reoccurring in each daughter universe:
1. A phase transition big bang that forms a new universe
2. Expansion of the new universe and its structure
3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy
4. Isolation of its galaxy clusters and supercluster complexes beyond event horizons
5. Many separate consolidations of all forms of matter, forces, and energy within these supercluster complexes into dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularities
6. The resulting acceleration of singularities warping space to the speed of light
7. The independent separation of each of these singularities from the universe, causing a big bang phase transition and producing all forms of matter, forces, and energy in a new universe.
“Acceleration of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities Serving as the Catalyst of Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes” Hypothesis is the most credible explanation of how universes form. It is the first model describing the cause of the Big Bang that incorporates dark energy and matter and supermassive black holes in its basic hypothesis. Singularity Acceleration uses only established scientific principles and known components, and it is the only hypothesis of universe formation that states a complete cause and effect for each phase, including a description of the starting mechanism. The table at www.universeformation.org/uftable.htm provides a comparison of some of the major universe formation proponents. Most of the tenets of the Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis are testable, probably more so than any other contemporary hypothesis of what happened before the Big Bang, although some of these tests may require technological advances. With only a few gaps to discover, the Singularity Acceleration model is the closest hypothesis to being a viable theory of the cause of big bangs and how universes are formed.